Moran CORE

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Retina & RPE Histopathology

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Normal Retinal Anatomy

Color fundus photo of the retina

Histologic appearance of retinal layers

Retinal layers in the macula

Histologic appearance of the fovea

Oblique orientation of axons in outer plexiform layer forming Henle’s layer

Hypertensive Retinopathy

Fundus photo of hypertensive retinopathy

Silver-wiring from hypertensive retinopathy

Optic disc swelling from hypertensive retinopathy

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO)

Fundus photo

Inner retina affected by CRAO

Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion (BRAO)

Fundus photo

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)

Cross-section of atherosclerotic central retinal artery

Fundus photo

Gross photo of sagittally cut globe

Retinal architecture disrupted from CRVO

Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO)

Fundus photo

Diabetic Retinopathy

Trypsin-digest showing microaneurysms from loss of pericytes

Fundus photo of diabetic retinopathy

Fundus photo of hard exudates

Histopathology of hard exudates

Fundus photo of cotton-wool spots

Cotton-wool spots in Ganglion Cell and Nerve-fiber layers

Swollen ganglion cells in cotton-wool spot

Fundus photo of neovascularization elsewhere (NVE)

Neovascularization of the disc (NVD)

Scarring and hemorrhage from neovascularization

Boat-shaped, pre-retinal hemorrhage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

Neovascularization of iris (NVI), also known as rubeosis iridis

Ectropion uveae from NVI

Neovascularization of the angle

Lacy vacuolization of iris pigment epithelium

PAS stain showing thickened basement membrane of ciliary body epithelium

Pan-retinal photocoagulation

Histopathology of PRP spots

Sickle Cell Retinopathy

Fluorescein angiogram of Sickle cell or Eales disease

Sickled RBCs in retinal vasculature

Macular Holes

Fundus photo of full-thickness macular hole

Magnified fundus photo of macular hole with fixation rod

Edge of macular hole showing edema

Epiretinal Membranes (ERM)

Fundus photo of epiretinal membrane

Fundus photo of epiretinal membrane

Red-free fundus photo of epiretinal membrane

OCT showing wrinkling of the macula

OCT of epiretinal membrane

Histology of epiretinal membrane

Dry Age-related Macular Degeneration

Fundus photo

Soft drusen

Large soft drusen

Fundus photo of confluent drusen around the fovea

Large, confluent soft drusen

Fundus photo of geographic atrophy

RPE atrophy in geographic atrophy

Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration

Sub-RPE and subretinal neovascularization

Larger sub-RPE and subretinal neovascularization

Histopathology of sub-RPE neovascularization
Photo reference: Harper RA. Basic Ophthalmology. Amer Academy of Ophthalmology; 2010.

Retinal Neovascularization


Disciform scar from neovascularization

Retinal Neovascularization

Cystoid Macular Edema

Fundus photo of cystoid macular edema (CME)

Autofluorescence of CME

Histopathology of CME in Henle’s layer

Bull’s Eye Maculopathy

Fundus photo of bull’s eye maculopathy

FA of bull’s eye maculopathy

Best Disease

Fundus photo

Sub-RPE deposit in Best disease

Stargardt Disease

Fundus photo

Hypertrophic RPE cells filled with lipofuscin-like material

Fundus Flavimaculatus

Pattern Dystrophy

Fungal Chorioretinitis

Presumed ocular histoplasmosis


Fundus photo of active toxoplasmosis

Chorioretinal scar in quiescent disease containing toxoplasma

Destruction of retina, RPE, and choroid form toxoplasmosis

CMV Retinitis

Fundus photo

Intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions

Acute Retinal Necrosis (ARN)

Bacterial Chorioretinitis

Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE)

Angioid streaks in pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Flexural creases in pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Fundus photo of classic triad of features in retinitis pigmentosa

Bony spicules

Histopathology of retinitis pigmentosa

Typical Peripheral Cystoid Degeneration (TPCD)

Reticular Degenerative Retinoschisis

Lattice Degeneration

Paving Stone Degeneration

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

External photo of bilateral leukocoria

Fundus photo of dragged disc in resolved ROP

Gross photo of exudative retinal detachment

Scleral buckle used in funnel retinal detachment


External photo of leukocoria

Fundus photo of calcified intraocular mass

Untreated retinoblastoma

Gross photo with sagittal cut of exophytic retinoblastoma

Gross photo of exophytic retinoblastoma with exudate

Retinoblastoma with both exophytic and endophytic growth

Pseudorosettes in retinoblastoma

Dystrophic calcification

Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes in retinoblastoma

Alcian blue stain of Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes

Fleurette in retinoblastoma

Vitreous seeding of retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma invading optic nerve

Retinoblastoma in the angle


Combined Hamartoma of the Retina and RPE

RPE Adenoma

RPE Adenocarcinoma

Myelinated Nerve Fibers

Fundus photo

Congenital Hypertrophy of the RPE (CHRPE)

Ocular Albinism

Oculocutaneous Albinism


Harper RA. Basic Ophthalmology. Amer Academy of Ophthalmology; 2010.
Yanoff M, Fine BS. Ocular Pathology, A Text and Atlas. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1989.